Stomach & Oesophageal Surgery
Both the oesophagus and stomach play important roles in the process of digestion. Some medical conditions affecting these organs are relatively common and are manageable with rest, dietary changes and medicines. Others, however, are more serious and may require surgery.
KYM Surgery specializes in the treatment of various abdominal and gastrointestinal conditions, such as:
Gastritis is characterized by an inflammation of the protective lining of the stomach. It is often caused by a gastrointestinal bacterial infection (H. pylori) or a weakness in the stomach lining that makes it susceptible to damage and inflammation from constant exposure to acidic digestive juices. Left untreated, the condition can lead to peptic ulcers and an increased risk of stomach cancer. Depending on its cause, gastritis can be controlled using medicines like antibiotics, antacids, H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors.
Also known as heartburn, acid reflux occurs when stomach acid flows back up the oesophagus and into the throat or mouth. It is characterized by a burning sensation felt in the chest that worsens after eating large meals, or when bending or lying down. Eating habits and medical conditions are said to be some of the causes. Frequent episodes of acid reflux may be indicative of gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). Acid reflux can be alleviated with diet and lifestyle changes, but if these prove to be insufficient, acid reflux surgery in Singapore is available.
Similar to acid reflux, indigestion or dyspepsia can be a symptom of GERD, but it can also be indicative of peptic ulcers, gastritis or stomach cancer. Symptoms of indigestion typically manifest in the form of discomfort felt in the upper abdomen, caused by eating large meals too quickly, smoking, taking certain medications, and more. Apart from diet and lifestyle adjustments, antacids may also be used to treat indigestion.
Oesophagitis is an irritation or inflammation in the oesophagus that causes symptoms such as acid reflux, sore throat and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). The condition is often treated using antacids, H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors. In more serious cases, surgical treatments may be carried out, such as fundoplication which is a procedure whereby part of the stomach is wrapped around the oesophagus to prevent acid reflux.
Prolonged acid exposure can lead to changes in cells and potentially cause the development of cancer in the oesophagus.
Ulcers are open sores that can develop inside the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the upper part of the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Characterized by burning stomach pain, ulcers are mostly caused by the H. pylori bacteria or long-term intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin. Medications, including antibiotics, probiotics and proton pump inhibitors, are common treatments for ulcers, followed by surgery.
A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper portion of the stomach squeezes through the diaphragm and into the chest area. While small hernias cause little to no symptoms, larger ones can result in acid reflux, chest pain, shortness of breath and difficulty swallowing. In more serious cases where symptoms progressively worsen, surgery is recommended. Procedures usually involve reducing the size of the hiatus (opening) in the diaphragm, removing the entire hernia sac, or reconstructing the oesophageal sphincter.
Symptoms of stomach cancer include indigestion, bloating, heartburn, stomach pain, weight loss, bloody stools, nausea and vomiting. In early-stage stomach cancer, surgery is used to remove the tumour, or part or whole of the stomach containing the cancer. Later-stage cancers usually require a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.